1.Overstay more than package days, 2. Any other Specialty Consultations, 3. Special Equipment, 4. Additional Procedure/Surgery. 5. Blood Components.
What is Glaucoma?
Glaucoma is a general term used to describe a group of eye disorders that damage the optic nerve. It's the most common form of optic nerve damage leading to vision loss. In most cases, fluid builds up in the front part of the eye. This extra fluid puts pressure on the eye, gradually damaging the optic nerve. This pressure is known as intraocular pressure (IOP), or eye pressure. Some people have normal eye pressure and still get glaucoma. Untreated or poorly controlled glaucoma can lead to permanent and irreversible vision loss and blindness. Your optic nerve plays a crucial role in vision. It sends signals from the retina (neural tissue in the back of your eye, like the film of an old-fashioned camera) to the brain. Your brain relies on these signals to create images.
People with diabetes are twice as likely to get glaucoma. Other risk factors include:
Family history of glaucoma.
Farsightedness or hyperopia (for closed-angle glaucoma).
High blood pressure (hypertension).
Long-term use of corticosteroids.
Nearsightedness or myopia (for open-angle glaucoma).
Previous eye injury or surgery.
Types of Glaucoma
There are several types of glaucoma, including:
Open-angle: It occurs when tiny deposits build up in the eye’s drainage canals, slowly clogging them. The canals appear to be open and functioning normally. But over months or years, the deposits cause fluid to build up and put pressure on the optic nerve. The disease can go unnoticed for years because most people don’t have symptoms.
Closed-angle: This rare type often comes on suddenly (acute). It occurs when the angle between the iris (the colored part of the eye that controls light exposure) and cornea (clear outer part of the eye) is too narrow. As a result, the drainage canals become blocked, preventing aqueous fluid from leaving the eye and causing an acute elevation in eye pressure. Symptoms, including eye pain and headaches, can be severe and require immediate medical attention.
Normal-tension: As many as one in three people have optic nerve damage even when eye pressure is normal or not very high. Experts aren’t sure what causes normal-tension glaucoma, which is also called normal-pressure or low-tension glaucoma.
Congenital: Some babies are born with drainage canals that don’t form properly in the womb. Doctor might notice a baby’s glaucoma symptoms at birth. Or signs may become noticeable during childhood. This condition is also known as childhood, infantile or pediatric glaucoma.
Testing for optic nerve damage with a dilated eye examination and imaging tests
Checking for areas of vision loss (visual field test)
Measuring corneal thickness (pachymetry)
Inspecting the drainage angle (gonioscopy)
Treatments can slow down additional vision loss, but they can’t restore lost vision. It’s important to see your eye doctor right away if you have eye pain, severe headaches or vision problems.
Glaucoma treatments include:
Eyedrops/Medication: Prescription eyedrops decrease fluids and increase drainage to alleviate eye pressure. There are many types of eyedrop medications that can be used for this condition. Because glaucoma is a lifelong condition, you may need to use daily eyedrops for life.
Laser treatment: Your eye doctor uses a laser (strong beam of light) to help improve fluid drainage from your eye. While the laser can complement the use of eye drops, it may not replace it completely. The results from laser treatments vary, but can last up to five years. Some laser treatments can also be repeated.
Surgery: Surgery is another way to help reduce eye pressure. It is more invasive but can also achieve better eye pressure control faster than drops or laser. Surgery can help slow down vision loss, but it can’t restore lost vision or cure glaucoma. There are many types of surgeries for glaucoma, and depending on the specific type and severity, your eye doctor may choose one over another.
Early detection of glaucoma through routine eye exams is the best way to protect eye health and prevent vision loss. Glaucoma testing should occur every:
1 to 2 years after age 35 for people at high risk.
Generally, glaucoma cannot be cured, but it can be controlled. Eye drops, pills, laser procedures, and surgical operations are used to prevent or slow further damage from occurring. With any type of glaucoma, regular eye examinations are very important to detect progression and to prevent vision loss.
Consuming a high trans fatty acid diet can result in damaging the optic nerve. You should avoid foods like baked goods such as cookies, cakes, donuts or fried items like French fries or stick margarine to steer clear from worsening your glaucoma. It may also improve your eye health.
When you can begin driving after glaucoma surgery will depend on the patient or the surgery, with some patients reporting that they feel comfortable driving within a week and others prefer to wait for up to two months.
During recovery, patients are advised to avoid heaving lifting, straining and bending for the first couple weeks following surgery until the operated eye completely heals. Conventional glaucoma surgery carries more risk compared to laser glaucoma surgery.
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