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What is Angioplasty?
Angioplasty also called percutaneous coronary intervention is a procedure used to open clogged heart arteries. Angioplasty uses a tiny balloon catheter that is inserted in a blocked blood vessel to help widen it and improve blood flow to your heart. Angioplasty is often combined with the placement of a small wire mesh tube called a stent. The stent helps prop the artery open, decreasing its chance of narrowing again. Angioplasty can improve symptoms of blocked arteries, such as chest pain and shortness of breath. Angioplasty is also often used during a heart attack to quickly open a blocked artery and reduce the amount of damage to your heart.
Reason of Angioplasty
Angioplasty is used to treat the buildup of fatty plaques in your heart's blood vessels. Angioplasty may be a treatment option for you if:
You have tried medications or lifestyle changes but these have not improved your heart health.
You have chest pain (angina) that is worsening.
You have a heart attack. Angioplasty can quickly open a blocked artery, reducing damage to your heart.
You may need coronary artery bypass surgery if:
The main artery that brings blood to the left side of your heart is narrow
Your heart muscle is weak
You have diabetes and multiple severe blockages in your arteries
In coronary artery bypass surgery, the blocked part of your artery is bypassed using a healthy blood vessel from another part of your body.
Risks of Angioplasty
The most common angioplasty risks include:
Re-narrowing of your artery. When angioplasty is combined with drug-eluting stent placement, there's a small risk the treated artery may become clogged again (less than 5%). The risk of re-narrowing of the artery is about 10% to 20% when bare-metal stents are used.
Blood clots. Blood clots can form within stents even after the procedure. These clots can close the artery, causing a heart attack. It's important to take aspirin in combination with clopidogrel (Plavix), prasugrel (Effient) or another medication that helps reduce the risk of blood clots exactly as prescribed to decrease the chance of clots forming in your stent.
Bleeding. You may have bleeding in your leg or arm where a catheter was inserted. Usually this simply results in a bruise, but sometimes serious bleeding occurs and may require a blood transfusion or surgical procedures.
Heart attack. Though rare, you may have a heart attack during the procedure.
Coronary artery damage. Your coronary artery may be torn or ruptured during the procedure. These complications may require emergency bypass surgery.
Kidney problems. The dye used during angioplasty and stent placement can cause kidney damage, especially in people who already have kidney problems.
Stroke. During angioplasty, a stroke can occur if plaques break loose when the catheters are being threaded through the aorta. Blood clots also can form in catheters and travel to the brain if they break loose.
Abnormal heart rhythms. During the procedure, the heart may beat too quickly or too slowly. These heart rhythm problems are usually short-lived, but sometimes medications or a temporary pacemaker is needed.
Your doctor will give you instructions to help you prepare.
Your doctor may instruct you to adjust or stop taking certain medications before angioplasty, such as aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or blood thinners. Be sure to tell your doctor about all medications you take, including herbal supplements.
Usually, you'll need to stop eating or drinking six to eight hours before an angiography.
Take approved medications with only small sips of water on the morning of your procedure.
Gather all of your medications to take to the hospital with you, including nitroglycerin, if you take it.
Arrange for transportation home. Angioplasty usually requires an overnight hospital stay, and you won't be able to drive yourself home the next day.
During the Procedure
Angioplasty is performed through an artery in your groin, arm or wrist area. General anesthesia isn't needed. You'll receive a sedative to help you relax, but you may be awake during the procedure depending on how deeply you are sedated.
You'll receive fluids, medications to relax you and blood-thinning medications (anticoagulants) through an IV catheter in your hand or arm.
Your heart rate, pulse, blood pressure and oxygen level will be monitored during the procedure.
Your doctor will prepare the area in your leg, arm or wrist with an antiseptic solution and will place a sterile sheet over your body.
Your doctor will use a local anesthetic to numb the area where a very small incision will be made. A small, thin guide wire is then inserted in the blood vessel.
With the help of live X-rays, your doctor will thread a thin tube (catheter) through your artery.
Contrast dye is injected through the catheter once it is in place. This allows your doctor to see the inside of your blood vessels and identify the blockage on X-ray images called angiograms.
A small balloon with or without a stent at the tip of the catheter is inflated at the site of the blockage, widening the blocked artery. After the artery is stretched, the balloon is deflated and the catheter is removed.
If you have several blockages, the procedure may be repeated at each blockage.
Angioplasty can take up to several hours, depending on the difficulty and number of blockages and whether any complications arise. You might feel pressure in the area where the catheter is inserted. You may also feel some mild discomfort when the balloon is inflated and your artery is stretched, but typically you shouldn't feel any sharp pain during the procedure. Most people who have an angioplasty also have a stent placed in their blocked artery during the same procedure. A stent, which looks like a tiny coil of wire mesh, supports the walls of your artery and helps prevent it from re-narrowing after the angioplasty.
Here's what happens during a stent placement:
The stent, which is collapsed around a balloon at the tip of the catheter, is guided through the artery to the blockage.
At the blockage, the balloon is inflated and the spring-like stent expands and locks into place inside the artery.
The stent stays in the artery permanently to hold it open and improve blood flow to your heart. In some cases, more than one stent may be needed to open a blockage.
Once the stent is in place, the balloon catheter is deflated and removed.
More X-ray images (angiograms) are taken to see how well blood flows through your newly widened artery.
Most stents implanted during an angioplasty are drug coated. The medication in the stent is slowly released to help prevent future plaque buildup and the re-narrowing of the blood vessel.
After the procedure
If you had a nonemergency procedure, you'll probably remain at the hospital overnight while your heart is monitored and your medications are adjusted. You generally should be able to return to work or your normal routine the week after angioplasty.
Call your doctor immediately if:
The site where your catheter was inserted starts bleeding or swelling
You develop pain or discomfort at the site where your catheter was inserted
You have signs of infection, such as redness, swelling, drainage or fever
There's a change in temperature or color of the leg or arm that was used for the procedure
You feel faint or weak
You develop chest pain or shortness of breath
If you have any related query, you can send us your report on below mention email address or you can call us or whatsApp for any second opinion.
Angioplasty with stent placement is a minimally invasive procedure used to open narrow or blocked arteries. This procedure is used in different parts of your body, depending on the location of the affected artery. It requires only a small incision.
If you had a planned (non-emergency) coronary angioplasty, you should be able to return to work after a week. However, if you've had an emergency angioplasty following a heart attack, it may be several weeks or months before <
Angioplasty is successful in opening coronary arteries in well over 90% of patients. Up to 30% to 40% of patients with successful coronary angioplasty will develop recurrent narrowing at the site of balloon inflation.
You may experience mild chestpain or ache following angioplasty and stent insertion, especially if several stents were put in place. This can take several weeks to settle. Tingling and numbness: Some people notice tingling or numbness in their leg.
Fresh fruits and vegetables are an excellent source of potassium, which can lessen the effects of sodium and help lower blood pressure. Berries in particular are heart-healthy. Pears and apples may help reduce stroke risk.
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