Pineal location tumors are primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors. These tumors start withinside the brain (withinside the pineal gland) however can unfold to the spinal cord.
Pineal tumors can be one or a mix of several different types. They can also be slow growing or fast growing. Pineal region excrescences are grouped in four grades and subtypes grounded on their characteristics. They are grouped by grade I, II, III, or IV. Grade I is the slowest growing. Grade IV is the most aggressive and grows and spreads faster. Tumors of the pineal gland may be one of these types:
Pineocytoma : These are slow-growing (grade I or II). These tumors usually appear between ages 20 and 64. But they can happen to a person at any age. People with pineocytomas tend to have a good outcome.
Pineal parenchymal tumor : These are intermediate-grade (grade II or III). Pineal parenchymal tumors and papillary pineal tumors may happen at any age.
Papillary pineal tumor : These are intermediate-grade (grade II or III).
Pineoblastoma : These are very rare, aggressive, and fast-growing (grade IV). They're almost always cancer. These tumors most often affect people under 20 years of age.
Mixed pineal tumor : These are a combination of slow- and fast-growing cell types
What causes a pineal tumor?
Researchers don't know what causes pineal tumors. Your genes and your environment may play a role. In some cases, exposure to radiation or gene problems may increase the risk.
What are the symptoms of a pineal tumor ?
Fast growing tumors may cause worse symptoms. Some of the common signs and symptoms of a pineal tumor may include:
Nausea and vomiting
Trouble with eye movements
Balance or coordination problems
How is a pineal tumor diagnosed?
Your doctor will talk with you about your personal and family health history and the symptoms you've been having. Your doctor will do a physical exam that includes a neurologic exam. Your doctor may test your reflexes, muscle strength, and eye and mouth movement and coordination.
If a doctor thinks you may have a pineal tumor, you may need tests, such as:
MRI. MRIs use radio waves, magnets, and a computer to make detailed images of the brain and spinal cord.
Biopsy. Tumor cells are removed and sent to a lab for testing. This is done to find out the type and grade of the tumor.
Spinal tap (lumbar puncture). The doctor uses a thin needle that's put between the bones of your spine to take out a small amount of CSF. The sample is tested for tumor cells and other substances.
Blood tests. These can be used to measure levels of substances such as melatonin in your blood.
You may first see your primary doctor. He or she may then refer you to a doctor that specializes in brain problems. This may be a neurologist, neurosurgeon, or Neuro-oncologist.
How is a pineal tumor treated?
The first treatment for pineal region excrescences is surgery, if possible. The thing of surgery is to obtain tissue to determine the excrescence type and to remove as important excrescence as possible without causing further symptoms for the person. Treatments after surgery may include radiation, chemotherapy, or clinical trials.
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